In 1936 the Transcaucasian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic split into the Armenian, Azerbaydzhan, and Georgian republics. Thus, each five-year convocation had ten or more sessions. In 1989 the first deputy chairman of the Council of Ministers, Iurii D. Masliukov, was promoted to full-member status on the Central Committee, and both he and deputy chairman Aleksandra P. Biriukova were candidate members of the Politburo. The two regular sessions of the Supreme Soviet in the spring and fall have served different purposes. Although the members of the council were subject to ratification and change by the Supreme Soviet and the Congress of People's Deputies, in 1989 they were actually appointed by the party. The preamble stated that "the aims of the dictatorship of the proletariat having been fulfilled, the Soviet state has become the state of the whole people." As the Soviet Union gained territory, the Supreme Soviet created new republics. The Constitution also specifically emphasized self-determination, human rights and civil liberties of private citizens as key points, as no ot… Gorbachev assumed the office of chairman in October 1988. The commissions and committees have played a minor role in ensuring that the language of legislation was uniform. Few of the colonial powers had trained indigenous administrators sufficiently. The Supreme Soviet elected to a five-year term in early 1989 was the twelfth convocation. Judges kept legal technicalities to a minimum because the court's stated purpose was to find the truth of a case rather than to protect legal rights. The Constitution placed the chairman of the Council of Ministers at the head of government. The enabling legislation provided the specific and changing operating rules for these government bodies. The Constitution explicitly defined the division of responsibilities between the central and republic governments. In line with the Marxist–Leninist ideology of the regime, the Constitution also granted certain social and economic rights. Thus, as changes have occurred in the socioeconomic and political systems, the government has adopted new constitutions that have conformed to the new sets of realities. Military regimes were frequently the last resort of a country where the civil power failed to cope with the problems of independence. Taking this consideration into account, the 1977 Constitution provided for the office of first deputy chairman to relieve the chairman of most ceremonial duties. The number of ratings represented very considerable differences of power, prestige, and prerogatives and produced psychological barriers between the highest and lowest grades at least as great and as conspicuous as between the cadres and the masses. Thus, citizen demands that were reconciled with the interests of the party apparatus have been met through election mandates. The regime considered voting a duty rather than a right. The Soviet Union was a federal state made up of fifteen republics joined together in a theoretically voluntary union. In the late 1980s, the CPSU performed many functions that governments of other countries usually perform. Until 1989 the Supreme Soviet was convoked for five-year terms but met in session only for a few days twice a year. 4). On appointment, the student was bonded for a minimum of three years and liable to criminal proceedings if he refused or subsequently relinquished his assignment. In addition, according to the Constitution the Supreme Soviet elected both its own leadership and that of the all-union administrative and judicial agencies, which were responsible to it. The members of the Soviet of the Union were selected on the basis of the population of the union republics and regions. In the 1984-89 convocation of the Supreme Soviet, 1,200 deputies served on the commissions (as the committees were called at that time), and 800 worked on the draft economic plan and the draft budget for the following year. Ministers were the chief administrative officials of the government. Nevertheless, decrees issued in the Presidium's name demonstrated wide-ranging powers to supervise the government bureaucracy. In theory, the fifteen republics entered into a free and voluntary union of sovereign states when they joined the Soviet Union. Although the Soviet Union signed the Final Act of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (Helsinki Accords), which mandated that internationally recognized human rights be respected in the signatory countries, no authority outside the Soviet Union could ensure citizen rights and freedoms. The Procuracy, as well as the Supreme Court, ensured the strict and uniform observance of law by all government bodies, enterprises, and public institutions. A main election was held in which 89.8 percent of the eligible voters, or 172.8 million people, participated. Glossary -- Soviet Union Academy of Sciences (Akademiia nauk) The Soviet Union's most prestigious scholarly institute, which conducted basic research in the physical, natural, mathematical, and social sciences. In many countries the incapacity of the civil service was a factor leading to military rule, as were the political failings of the elected leaders. These were abolished after the demobilization of the old army at the treaty of Brest-Litivsk, when the soldiers were absorbed into the factories and the farms. For example, prior to 1989 the chairman of the Foreign Affairs Commission (present-day Foreign Affairs Committee) of the Soviet of the Union was usually the secondranking member of the Politburo. 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